Bringing together the disciplines of physics, engineering, and biology, Biomechanics refers to the forces that act upon us and the forced movement and reactions that this then creates.
With this in mind, Biomechanical analysis can be invaluable when determining how the laws of physics could influence an event whether it is a fall, trip, push or motor vehicle collision. Over the years, we have gained vast experience assisting with Police and Civil investigations relating to complex occupant injury scenarios as well as non-accidental falls.
From determining the effect of seatbelt usage and the projected path for occupant ejection to occur, through to determining seating position prior to collision, we provide thorough reports and simulations that can be presented as evidence UK courts.
We’re experts in our field and our proven track record is testament to this. Working closely with the instructing client, we provide both technical and verbal evidence in Coroner’s and Crown Courts across the UK, supporting both Criminal and Civil investigations.
All evidence demonstrates how unique injuries can occur, breaking down complex issues into pieces of information based on physical evidence as well as our unique professional knowledge in this area.
We also specialise in assisting the authorities and investigators in determining the most likely cause of any given situation based upon witness testimony, in order to demonstrate if this is supported by the application of physics or understanding of the effect of human kinematics .
For us, it’s important that we provide a detailed examination prior to every formal investigation whether it’s of a physical vehicle, clip of CCTV footage or purely reliant on photographs.
Our services are available to all customers. However, we must stress that we only ever provide a truly independent service that is not focussed on matching any pre-defined outcome.
Case Scenarios under taken by Advanced Simtech include:
Falls from a balcony – Understanding the way a person passed over the protective handrail, plus analysing if a fall could have been accidental or not. This included working as part of a team investigating an incident for a TV documentary for BBC Scotland on one particular case.
Window Fall – Analysing a person’s movement based upon scene geometry and the possible ways that a person could exit the open window aperture in a fall scenario. Plus CCTV footage review to determine the key features of a fall.
Stairwell fall – comparison of injury patterns to determine if the injuries occurred as a result of a fall only. Plus analysis of the sequence of movement that would have resulted in the fall, and if any countermeasures could have prevented it from occurring.
Child Safety Seat – assessing the application of a child seat and its fitment in a vehicle, based on a fatal child injury in a road traffic collision. As well as post-impact assessment of the child seat to determine the causation of any damage to its use in a collision event.
Tutankhamen – Reconstructing the possible causation of injuries that were discovered on the CT scans of the mummified body of King Tutankhamen, for a Channel 4 and National Geographic documentary.
Train Safety – Assisted with simulation and expert oppinion for a documentary for ITV on commuter train safety and over crowding within commuter carriages.
Multiple occupants in a single vehicle – determining which of the occupants was driving based on occupant injury and vehicle interior damage.
Injury Causation – determining how individuals are injured in described scenarios. Comparing witness descriptions using physics based analysis.
Airbag Injuries – Determining the risk of injury and also limits of contamination for DNA to an airbag during a collision.
Seatbelt Usage – determining if a seat belt restraint ahd been worn correctly, and also the effect that a seatbelt would have had on a known incident.
Care Home Incident – Reconstructing a lifting sling incident, to determine how a resident was fatally injured during routine care. This was based on analysis of witness statements and physical reconstructions in order to demonstrate the
physics of the patients fall to the court.
Pedestrian Analysis – Determining vehicle speed and trajectory where only minimal vehicle damage is recorded in a hit and run event.
Motorbike – Predicting the effect of an impacted motorcycle on the path of the ejected rider, as well as the perception of the car driver that struck them.
Hanging Analysis – using witness statements to reconstruct a unique case. Investigators were unable to fully appreciate the available evidence hence we provided a physics based reconstruction based on the available statements in order to gain a better understand of the limitations of each scenario.
Child placed in a waste chute – Provided support and analysis to determine the forces applied to a new born child that was placed into a vertical waste chute within a tower block building.
Fall from a horse – Analysing a serious incident involving a horse and its rider, to determine the risk from the challenging course that they were competing on.
Vehicle Interior damage – Using interior deformation analysis to determine how people moved within a vehicle, used to determine where each occupant was seated prior to the collision.
CCTV Analysis – Using CCTV footage to determine the speed of a vehicle, as well as to compare alleged damage to propery.
We have successfully worked together with several of the UK police forces providing bespoke biomechanics reconstructions and expert witness services, including:
- Gloucestershire Police
- Avon & Somerset Police
- Devon & Cornwall
- Thames Valley Police
- Greater Manchester Police
- Warwickshire Police
- South Wales Police
- Kent Police.
We are also registered with the UK police’s NPIA with regards to our unique expert witness capability in biomechanics, accident reconstruction and forensic laser scanning.
What is Biomechanics?
The definition of Biomechanics is: The study of the mechanical laws relating to the movement or structure of living organisms
There are 5 key components of Biomechanics:-
1. Motion = The movement of the body
2. Force = The product of mass and acceleration
3. Momentum = The product of the weight and speed
4. Levers = Directional rotation and distance from pivot
5. Balance = Equilibrium of forces
Biomechanics is the study of Human movement and the interaction with the environment. It covers many dedicated fields of research ranging from Sports Science, Gait analysis, Injury Analysis, Ergonomics and Forensic biomechanics.
At Advanced Simtech we work towards analysing the Mechanism of Injury in any scenario presented to us. This requires detailed understanding of how injuries are caused, the scale of the forces involved, and the direction in which they are applied. Our services combine our unique engineering capability, vehicle safety knowledge and our understanding of Biomechanics in order to provide a better understanding of any incident.
What is Biomechanics used for?
It can be invaluable in determining the likelihood of injuries given a specific crash or injury scenario, also to confirm that the injuries received match those that would have been expected.
Who would need to use Biomechanics?
It can help inform an investigator about:-
- The extent of an injury
- Where would the injury have occurred ?
- How did the injury occur ?
- Could the injury have been prevented?
- Did the injuries received match those that would have been expected?
When this is combined with an incident under investigation it can help understand additional detail on how a specific event occurred.
- Did the incident occur as described by witnesses or those involved?
- What contribution was there on behalf of the injured person
- Was there a degree of negligence on the part of those involved
At Advanced Simtech, we specialise in the application of Biomechanics to assist in understanding a unique injury event, for example answering questions like;
- In Trip, slip and fall cases; Did they fall or were they pushed?
- In cases where a vehicle occupant has been ejected or refused to answer questions; Were they the driver of the car, or where were they sat?
- In cases where injury compensation is sought; Were they wearing a seat belt?
As of the start of July 2020, we are now also the UK distributor for Applanix land systems. Providing robust position and orientation solutions for sensors and vehicles. Industry-leading GNSS-aided inertial technology, and Direct Georeferencing of imaging devices sensor fusion and complex systems
If you have any questions about any of our specialist engineering services including Occupant Biomechanics, Vehicle Safety Systems such as restraints and airbags, Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), Autonomous Vehicles or 3D Data Capture and Processing, please do not hesitate to get in touch. Our knowledgeable, professional, and experienced team is always on hand to answer any of your questions.Alscot Estate, Atherstone Hill, Atherstone on Stour
Stratford Upon Avon, CV37 8NF
Tel: +44 (0) 1789 264 782
Advanced Simtech Ltd.
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Advanced Simtech is an privately owned engineering consultancy specialising in the areas of human biomechanics, vehicle safety and real world accident reconstruction.